Tentillier E., Masson F.: Epidemologie des traumatismes, Traumatismes graves. Edited by Beydon L., Carli P., Riou B. Paris, Arnette 2000:1-15
Baker SP, O’Neill B, Haddon W, Jr., Long WB: The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma 1974;14:187-96
Moreau M, Gainer PS, Champion H, Sacco WJ: Application of the trauma score in the prehospital setting. Ann Emerg Med 1985;14:1049-54
Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Copes WS, Gann DS, Gennarelli TA, Flanagan ME: A revision of the Trauma Score. J Trauma 1989;29:623-9
Champion HR, Copes WS, Sacco WJ, Lawnick MM, Keast SL, Bain LW, Jr., Flanagan ME, Frey CF: The Major Trauma Outcome Study: establishing national norms for trauma care. J Trauma 1990;30:1356-65
Hollis S, Yates DW, Woodford M, Foster P: Standardized comparison of performance indicators in trauma: a new approach to case-mix variation. J Trauma 1995;38:763-6
Peytel E, Menegaux F, Cluzel P, Langeron O, Coriat P, B. R: Initial imaging assessment of severe blunt trauma. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:1756-1761
Morris JA, Jr., MacKenzie EJ, Damiano AM, Bass SM: Mortality in trauma patients: the interaction between host factors and severity. J Trauma 1990;30:1476-82
Moore FA, Moore EE: Evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of postinjury multiple organ failure. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:257-77
Ba ZF, Wang P, Koo DJ, Cioffi WG, Bland KI, Chaudry IH: Alterations in tissue oxygen consumption and extraction after trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care Med 2000;28:2837-42
Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, Moser KS, Brennan R, Read RA, Pons PT: Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment. J Trauma 1995;38:185-93
Shackford SR: The evolution of modern trauma care. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:147-56
Shackford SR, Mackersie RC, Holbrook TL, Davis JW, Hollingsworth-Fridlund P, Hoyt DB, Wolf PL: The epidemiology of traumatic death. A population-based analysis. Arch Surg 1993;128:571-5
Elliott DC, Rodriguez A: Cost effectiveness in trauma care. Surg Clin North Am 1996;76:47-62
Tiret L, Garros B, Maurette P, Nicaud V, Thicoipe M, Hatton F, Erny P: Incidence, causes and severity of injuries in Aquitaine, France: a community-based study of hospital admissions and deaths. Am J Public Health 1989;79:316-21
Gomberg BF, Gruen GS, Smith WR, Spott M: Outcomes in acute orthopaedic trauma: a review of 130,506 patients by age. Injury 1999;30:431-7
MacKenzie EJ, Morris JA, Jr., Smith GS, Fahey M: Acute hospital costs of trauma in the United States: implications for regionalized systems of care. J Trauma 1990;30:1096-101;discussion 1101-3
Nagy KK, Smith RF, Roberts RR, Joseph KT, An GC, Bokhari F, Barrett J: Prognosis of penetrating trauma in elderly patients: a comparison with younger patients. J Trauma 2000;49:190-3;discussion 193-4
Finelli FC, Jonsson J, Champion HR, Morelli S, Fouty WJ: A case control study for major trauma in geriatric patients. J Trauma 1989;29:541-8
Johnson CL, Margulies DR, Kearney TJ, Hiatt JR, Shabot MM: Trauma in the elderly: an analysis of outcomes based on age. Am Surg 1994;60:899-902
Shabot MM, Johnson CL: Outcome from critical care in the «oldest old» trauma patients. J Trauma 1995;39:254-9;discussion 259-60
Whitman S, Coonley-Hoganson R, Desai BT: Comparative head trauma experiences in two socioeconomically different Chicago-area communities: a population study. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119:570-80
MacKenzie EJ, Siegel JH, Shapiro S, Moody M, Smith RT: Functional recovery and medical costs of trauma: an analysis by type and severity of injury. J Trauma 1988;28:281-97
Miller TR, Pindus NM, Douglass JB: Medically related motor vehicle injury costs by body region and severity. J Trauma 1993;34:270-5
Meyer AA: Death and disability from injury: a global challenge. J Trauma 1998;44:1-12
Davis JW, Hoyt DB, McArdle MS, Mackersie RC, Shackford SR, Eastman AB: The significance of critical care errors in causing preventable death in trauma patients in a trauma system. J Trauma 1991;31:813-8;discussion 818-9
Rhodes M, Aronson J, Moerkirk G, Petrash E: Quality of life after the trauma center. J Trauma 1988;28:931-8
Smith RF, Frateschi L, Sloan EP, Campbell L, Krieg R, Edwards LC, Barrett JA: The impact of volume on outcome in seriously injured trauma patients: two years’ experience of the Chicago Trauma System. J Trauma 1990;30:1066-75;discussion 1075-6
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Maier RV, Grossman DC, MacKenzie EJ, Moore M, Rivara FP: Relationship between trauma center volume and outcomes. Jama 2001;285:1164-71
Hoff WS, Tinkoff GH, Lucke JF, Lehr S: Impact of minimal injuries on a level I trauma center. J Trauma 1992;33:408-12
Baxt WG, Jones G, Fortlage D: The trauma triage rule: a new, resource-based approach to the prehospital identification of major trauma victims. Ann Emerg Med 1990;19:1401-6
Esposito TJ, Offner PJ, Jurkovich GJ, Griffith J, Maier RV: Do prehospital trauma center triage criteria identify major trauma victims? Arch Surg 1995;130:171-6
Dailey JT, Teter H, Cowley RA: Trauma center closures: a national assessment. J Trauma 1992;33:539-46;discussion 546-7
Riou B, Landais P, Vivien B, Stell P, Labbene I, Carli P: Distribution of the probability of survival is a strategic issue for randomized trials in critically ill patients. Anesthesiology 2001;95:56-63
Henry MC, Thode HC, Jr., Shrestha C, Noack P: Inadequate hospital reimbursement for victims of motor vehicle crashes due to health reform legislation. Ann Emerg Med 2000;35:277-82
Andersen J, Sharkey W, Schwartz ML, McLellan BA: Injury severity score, head injury, and patient wait days: contributions to extended trauma patient length of stay. J Trauma 1992;33:219-20
Jacobs LM, Schwartz RJ: The impact of prospective reimbursement on trauma centers. An alternative payment plan. Arch Surg 1986;121:479-83
Schwab CW, Young G, Civil I, Ross SE, Talucci R, Rosenberg L, Shaikh K, O’Malley K, Camishion RC: DRG reimbursement for trauma: the demise of the trauma center (the use of ISS grouping as an early predictor of total hospital cost). J Trauma 1988;28:939-46
Shapiro MJ, Keegan M, Copeland J: The misconception of trauma reimbursement. Arch Surg 1989;124:1237-40
Joy SA, Yurt RW: An all-payor prospective payment system (PPS) based on diagnosis- related-groups (DRG): financial impact on reimbursement for trauma care and approaches to minimizing loss. J Trauma 1990;30:866-73
Falcone RE, Wanamaker SR, Monk J, Carey LC, Valenziano C: Physician review improves hospital DRG reimbursement in injury. J Trauma 1992;33:370-3;discussion 373-4
Lancry PJ, Sandier S: Rationing health care in France. Health Policy 1999;50:23-38
Poulton F, Francoual GN, Menguy C: [Surgical pathology costs more in emergencies: a bias in the clinical scoring index]. J Chir (Paris) 2001;138:15-8
Vergnenegre A, Druet-Cabanac M, Rymer R: [Interventional radiology and the medical applications of information systems: what consequences for the radiology department?]. J Radiol 1999;80:565-8
Vergnon P, Morgon E, Dargent S, Benyamine D, Favre M, Perrot L, Pradat E, Colin C: [Quality assessment of the medical information on the standardized discharge summary]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 1998;46:24-33
Rodrigues JM: DRGs and inequities among French hospitals: from a new dilemma to another health care policy. Aust Health Rev 1999;22:39-52
Bensadoun H: [The Medical Information Systems Project clinical coding and surgeons: why should surgeons code and how?]. J Chir (Paris) 2001;138:6-14
Eastman AB, Bishop GS, Walsh JC, Richardson JD, Rice CL: The economic status of trauma centers on the eve of health care reform. J Trauma 1994;36:835-44;discussion 844-6
Southard PA: Trauma economics: realities and strategies. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 1994;6:435-40
Rogers FB, Osler TM, Shackford SR, Cohen M, Camp L, Lesage M: Study of the outcome of patients transferred to a level I hospital after stabilization at an outlying hospital in a rural setting. J Trauma 1999;46:328-33
Jenkins DH: Substance abuse and withdrawal in the intensive care unit. Contemporary issues. Surg Clin North Am 2000;80:1033-53
Soderstrom CA, Trifillis AL, Shankar BS, Clark WE, Cowley RA: Marijuana and alcohol use among 1023 trauma patients. A prospective study. Arch Surg 1988;123:733-7
Sloan EP, Zalenski RJ, Smith RF, Sheaff CM, Chen EH, Keys NI, Crescenzo M, Barrett JA, Berman E: Toxicology screening in urban trauma patients: drug prevalence and its relationship to trauma severity and management. J Trauma 1989;29:1647-53
Jurkovich GJ, Rivara FP, Gurney JG, Seguin D, Fligner CL, Copass M: Effects of alcohol intoxication on the initial assessment of trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med 1992;21:704-8
Newsome HH, Jr.: Ethanol modulation of plasma norepinephrine response to trauma and hemorrhage. J Trauma 1988;28:1-9
Desiderio MA: The potentiation of the response to blunt cardiac trauma by ethanol in dogs. J Trauma 1986;26:467-73
Dunham CM, Watson LA, Cooper C: Base deficit level indicating major injury is increased with ethanol. J Emerg Med 2000;18:165-71
Napolitano LM, Koruda MJ, Zimmerman K, McCowan K, Chang J, Meyer AA: Chronic ethanol intake and burn injury: evidence for synergistic alteration in gut and immune integrity. J Trauma 1995;38:198-207
Kawakami M, Switzer BR, Herzog SR, Meyer AA: Immune suppression after acute ethanol ingestion and thermal injury. J Surg Res 1991;51:210-5
Faunce DE, Gregory MS, Kovacs EJ: Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cellular immune responses in a murine model of thermal injury. J Leukoc Biol 1997;62:733-40
Tamura DY, Moore EE, Partrick DA, Johnson JL, Offner PJ, Harbeck RJ, Silliman CC: Clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol attenuate primed neutrophil bactericidal activity. J Trauma 1998;44:320-4
Gentilello LM, Cobean RA, Walker AP, Moore EE, Wertz MJ, Dellinger EP: Acute ethanol intoxication increases the risk of infection following penetrating abdominal trauma. J Trauma 1993;34:669-74;discussion 674-5
Spies CD, Neuner B, Neumann T, Blum S, Muller C, Rommelspacher H, Rieger A, Sanft C, Specht M, Hannemann L, Striebel HW, Schaffartzik W: Intercurrent complications in chronic alcoholic men admitted to the intensive care unit following trauma. Intensive Care Med 1996;22:286-93
Jurkovich GJ, Rivara FP, Gurney JG, Fligner C, Ries R, Mueller BA, Copass M: The effect of acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol abuse on outcome from trauma. Jama 1993;270:51-6
Trunkey D: Initial treatment of patients with extensive trauma. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1259-63
Roberge RJ, Wears RC: Evaluation of neck discomfort, neck tenderness, and neurologic deficits as indicators for radiography in blunt trauma victims. J Emerg Med 1992;10:539-44
Schierhout G, Roberts I: Fluid resuscitation with colloid or crystalloid solutions in critically ill patients: a systematic review of randomised trials. Bmj 1998;316:961-4
Choi PT, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ: Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review. Crit Care Med 1999;27:200-10
Alderson P, Schierhout G, Roberts I, Bunn F: Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2
Eberhard LW, Morabito DJ, Matthay MA, Mackersie RC, Campbell AR, Marks JD, Alonso JA, Pittet JF: Initial severity of metabolic acidosis predicts the development of acute lung injury in severely traumatized patients. Crit Care Med 2000;28:125-31
Labadie LL: Transfusion therapy in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1993;11:379-406
Monaghan WP, Levan DR, Camp FR, Jr.: Military blood banking: blood transfusion aboard a Naval hospital ship receiving multiple casualties in a combat zone, a controlled medical environment. Transfusion 1977;17:473-8
Blumberg N, Bove JR: Un-cross-matched blood for emergency transfusion. One year’s experience in a civilian setting. Jama 1978;240:2057-9
Aspects socio-économiques des traumatismes graves
Edouard A.

La mortalité d’origine traumatique est un problème d’une telle ampleur que les mécanismes à son origine doivent être connus et que des outils d’évaluation de la gravité ou de prédiction du pronostic doivent être mis à la disposition des praticiens. Cette hécatombe civile a un retentissement économique d’ampleur variable en fonction de la population concernée et des lésions présentées. En tout état de cause, des stratégies de réduction des coûts de prise en charge doivent être élaborées pour limiter les dépenses en préservant la qualité des soins.

Fatal error: Call to a member function prepare() on null in /home/ws/mapar/www/includes/MxTdEngine.inc.php on line 22